Article Title & Authors
 "Teacher Adjustment in Relation to Teaching Aptitude of Secondary School Teachers in Shillong "
Dr. Yodida Bhutia, Swapnadeep Dey

Abstract: Man, among the living beings, has the highest capacities to adapt to new situations. Man as a social animal not only adapts to physical demands but he also adjusts to social pressures in the society. Similar such adjustments are made by teachers while pursuing the teaching profession (Chauhan, 2001). At every point of time, a teacher has to be effective enough so as to be able to deal with the various issues that crop up in his or her work area and then adjust to the situations as required. At times, a teacher had to exhibit skillful adjustable behavior whereby he or she has to sometimes curb one's own desires just to facilitate a proper teacher-learning or work environment. Such a task, at times is not a very easy job and it requires a teacher to have enough psychological proficiency to be able to handle all the various work situations and still teach effectively and bring about the progress of students in an apt manner. Teaching aptitude may surely help to be better adjusted in teaching job. The study was conducted on secondary school teachers of Shillong, Meghalaya. The study found that training has impact on the adjustment of teachers. The trained teachers reflected higher adjustment then untrained teachers.

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"Disability and Subjective Well Being in Patients of Schizophrenia"
Gaurav Kumar Giri, Mir Insha Ali, Neyaz Ahmad

Abstract: Man, among the living beings, has the highest capacities to adapt to new situations. Man as a social animal not only adapts to Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects approximately 1%of the global population. It is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to assess the severity of disability in patients with chronic schizophrenia. It also aimed to study the subjective well being and quality of life of chronic schizophrenia patients in comparison with normal control. The research was conducted at Central Institute of psychiatry. In this study, 30 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 30 normal controls were compared. Various scales were applied to measure symptom severity, subjective well being and quality of life. Disability was only measured on the patients with schizophrenia. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia have shown high level of disability, poorer psychological functioning and poor quality of life.

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"Classroom Management for Effective Teaching "
Ritu Chandra

Abstract: Teachers play a major role for effective class conduction. It is the responsibility of the teacher to make his /her class interesting so that students are keen to attend and participate in the class. Some of the teachers keep complaining about the class which they teach. The problem is normally related to student�s behaviour and discipline. Such students miss out on learning. They usually bunk or are irregular to class. They don�t even bother to be present for the class. So many students today just don�t value their education. If we suspend such students for bunking class they don�t seem to care at all. Sitting at home doesn�t change their attitude. Maybe a fresh look at the approach to Classroom management is required. But why we as a teacher are losing our grip with the classes? This paper focuses on the problems, reasons and suggestions for effective class management.

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"Relationship Between Attitude Towards Teaching Profession and Teachers' Self - Efficacy Beliefs "
Dr. B. M. Hurakadli

Abstract: In the context of the present study, we dealt with personal and general efficacy: i) Personal teaching efficacy is the teachers' own expectations that they will be ablze to perform the actions that lead to students learning and ii). General teaching efficacy is the belief that the teacher population's ability to perform these actions is not limited by factors beyond school control. Teacher efficacy discussions usually center on two categories of teachers. That is, teachers with substantial confidence in their efficacy are described with terms such as confidence, a positive sense of teacher efficacy, or high teacher efficacy. Those with moderate or low levels of confidence in their efficacy are often labeled as having less confidence, doubting their efficacy, having low teacher efficacy, or having a less positive sense of teacher efficacy. Teachers with a positive sense of teacher efficacy believe they can influence student outcomes; teachers with a less positive sense of teacher efficacy believe there is little that can be done to affect student outcomes, or that they personally lack the skill to do so.

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" Marital Adjustment Among Patients With Depression "
Anubha Srivastava

Abstract: This study explored marital adjustment among patients with depression. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) ( Beck, Steel & Brown, 1996) and Marital Adjustment Inventory (Har Mohan Singh ,1972) were administered on a sample of 60 depressive patients (30 male and 30 female) with diagnosis of ICD10 were purposively selected for the present study, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Post Graduate Institute of Behavioral & Medical Sciences (PGIBAMS), Raipur, C.G. Patients were taken from both outdoor and indoor departments. Findings revealed that there are significant marital problems among depressive patients with males reporting comparatively more marital problems.

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"A Quantitative Study on Indian IT Professionals to Validate the Integrated Model on Job Stress "
Pammi Shesha Srinivas, Sony Kumari, Katte Bharathiramanachar Akhilesh,Hongsandra Ramarao Nagendra

Abstract: IImpact of mental strain caused by Job stress in workforce, is much researched topic in this digital age. It is generally accepted that mental strain caused by excessive stress (distress), is one of the main reasons for today's wide spread nature of noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, depression etc., in the knowledge based workforce. Eustress (positive state of stress) brings high alertness and helps to perform beyond the perceived capability of any worker. Most of the western popular models on job stress, considered only distress component while understanding mental state due to job stress leaving behind the Eustress component. In this integrated model on job stress, both Eustress and distress states were duly considered, by making it the unique comprehensive model on defining impact due to Job stress. This model also brings about the significance of psyche nurturing practices which play key role in modifying the impact of job stress. To validate this integrated model on Job stress, a quantitative study was performed on assessing “ perceived ” stress levels” of Indian IT professionals by choosing Yoga based Cyclic Meditation practice as psyche nurturing practice. It was observed that “ perceived stress levels” were reduced significantly in Indian IT professionals with regular practice of cyclic meditation. This quantitative study supports claims of Integrated Job stress model that psyche nurturing practices have modifying effect on impact due to job stress in knowledge based workforce. Stress researchers across the globe, are encouraged to use this unique integrated model under multiple industry/professional setups and come up with valuable suggestions for mental well - beings of the workforce.

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"A Critical Analysis on Constructivive Learning for Its Effective Usage in Classroom Situations "
Wikcrama Kankanamge Don Keerthirathne

Abstract: Iconstructivism, which emerged in the second half of the 20th century, is a recent theory introduced to the world of education. Presently, educational psychologists motivate teachers and teacher educators to practice constructivist principles in classroom situations in order to produce more suitable people to the world of work with 21st century competencies. But it seems that the system has still not been able to meet this expectation due to several issues. A major problem is that teachers' knowledge and attitudes are not rich regarding both the theoretical and the practical aspects of constructive teaching-learning process as its major counterpart. Hence,my aim is to discuss how to be a successful constructivist teacher having understood its basic principles as well as the characteristics of a learner who study in a learner-centered classroom in order to create more effective constructivist leaning environment by overcoming common criticism which has emerged against constructivism. The main body of this paper discusses the outstanding features of a constructivist teacher who implements a constructivist teaching learning environment while giving an answer to common criticism against the constructive teaching learning process. When reaching this objective, it is expected to conduct the search from critical and analytical perspectives along with descriptive and explanatory methods with the research works of previous scholars. Furthermore, this research would contribute to the enhancement of the knowledge of teachers, principles, teacher educators, curriculum developers and policy makers on both practical and theoretical aspects of constructivism to implement constructive teaching locally and internationally, as well as empowering them to find solutions for common criticisms against constructivist learning.

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" Promoting Commercialization through Internationalization of Higher Education"
Dr. Tania Gupta

Abstract: Post 1991 economic reforms, a new form of globalization called ‘ academic globalization’ has emerged. Neo- liberalism has spread its clutches globally in the sphere of higher education. Its powerful discourse can be witnessed in terms of change in public higher policy. Higher education, initially a government - supported service has entered the marketplace. Universities are big businesses , marketing themselves in the world-wide education market.All over the world, privatization has been accepted all too well in consensual silence. Besides privatization, another global commercial strategy adopted by countries is the internationalization of higher education. This paper puts forth the conceptual framework of internationalization of higher education and highlights its role in promoting commercialization of higher education.

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"Attachment: The Roots of Love "
Vidushi Dixit, Arun Kumar

Abstract: The present study was planned to review the literature and explore the relationship between attachment and love. On the basis of the literature it was found that attachment lies at the roots of love. Basically four patterns of attachment were found namely secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disorganized attachment. The securely attached children grow into healthy, socially adept adults whereas remaining three type of attachments lead to behavioral and relationship problems. Through researches on love and attachment psychologists have learned about the cultivation and re-cultivation of love as love is a combination of emotions, cognitions and behaviors that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships. The theoretical approach of love describes love as Passionate love and Compassionate love whereas the Triangular theory of love describes eight types of love namely Non- Love, liking, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, compassionate love, fatuous love and consummate love. It was also found in the studies that re-cultivation of love among adults help people to reassure and bind together in secure relationships. Therefore it can be concluded that attachment and love are like two rail track lines on which the train of healthy life runs swiftly and smoothly.

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"Effect of Speciallly Designed Instructional Material in Improving The Reading and Writing Ability Among Slow Learners"
Mareena Seema Sequeira

Abstract: Human being is the most complex and dynamic creation of God. Most of the learning in him takes place before he is an adult. An impediment to any aspect of this learning creates problems for the young human. The present study is an experimental study wherein the English Language reading and writing ability among the slow learners of Pre University Course is tested. Based on the results they are treated with the specially designed instructional material through presentation and practice. After six months continuous effort it is observed that there is an inspiring improvement in the reading and writing ability among the slow learners.

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"Academic Self - Handicapping in Adolescents: Predictors and Implications : A Comparative Study "
Asha Kumari. B

Abstract: The process of education helps in holistic development of learners by enabling them to develop needed adequacies, competencies, skills to deal successfully with real- life situations. With the aim of education being holistic development, the process includes interaction among environmental settings and psychological constructs to achieve desirable changes. Selfhandicapping is one such construct which individuals employ to protect their self-esteem in spite of the failures they face. It is defined as an action or choice of performance setting that enhances opportunity to externalise failure and internalize success. Individuals engaging in self - handicapping create unfavourable circumstances or situations prior to their important performances to protect self-esteem in case of their failure, or enhance esteem in case of success This paper identifies concept of self- handicapping , individuals' self- handicapping tendencies and context promoting its origin , determinants and strategies to cope with this behaviour aiding the healthy development of individuals.

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"EFL Teachers Classroom Assessment Purposes "

Abstract: The new language assessment policy in the Indonesia has impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Indonesian high school English teachers' classroom assessment practices in EFL classes. This study was conducted using a mix method design with 12 Indonesian junior high school English teachers as respondents who completed the questionnaire and interview on classroom assessment practices. The study found that an Indonesian Junior High School English Teachers main purpose of classroom assessment was assessment for learning as the first preference. It was then followed by the classroom assessment of learning. And the last purpose was classroom assessment as learning. The most frequently used of classroom assessment for learning for Indonesian English Junior High School teachers was to group their students for instruction purposes in the class. The most frequently used of classroom assessment of learning among Indonesian teachers was to determine the final grades for students and to provide information to the central administration.

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"Psycho - A Study of Mental Health of Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Their Job Satisfaction and Job Stress: Some issues"
Mr. Suresh K.S. , Dr. Haseen Taj

Abstract: Mental health is a very ambiguous term because it is difficult to agree on its general application in a single context. Mental health is not a very precise term and the field of mental health is striving for scientific status while also serving as an ideological label. Before discussing programs to improve the mental health of teachers, this article will briefly touch upon the factors affecting a teacher�s mental health. Being a member of a larger society, a teacher also may face problems of maladjustment as part of a developing society in modern times. There are many factors and conditions which can affect mental health in teachers. Mental health is an index

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"Critical Analysis of Hindi Text Book of Class ‘ Four ’ "
Ms. Bhawana Sharma

Abstract: Role of textbook in teaching learning process is inevitable. A good textbook helps in achieving goals of teaching learning process. Keeping in mind, the criteria of a good textbook and aims and objectives of a textbook, an attempt has been made to analyze the textbook of Hindi of class 4. Researcher had surveyed the teachers of directorate of Education, Pre-service teacher trainees of DIET, students of Government schools of DoE (Directorate of Education) and their parents and their viewshave been analyzed critically to judge the quality of the textbook as per the changing needs of teachers and parents.

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"American Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Key Economic Sectors of India "
Anjali Bhati

Abstract: Globalization, no doubt, came as a boon for developing nations and brings myriads of new opportunities for the developed nations also. Various activities of a nation became no longer centric to their geographical boundaries , they, rather, transcended them. Globalisation guarantees profits to the participants, but also does not spare a participant-nation from being adversely affected in ‘ Hard Times’ . By ‘ Hard Times’ I meant ‘ global recession’ and that too in a limited sense being related to the America & India only. This paper examines the causes of great recession in the context of America and its effect on Indian economic structure. Attempt has also been made to suggest some steps to be taken to engulf the American crisis. This paper also details some of the domestic endeavours being undertaken by various Indian agencies viz. RBI to curb the effect of American crisis on Indian economy, structural soundness of Indian Economy which resulted in safeguarding, to a larger extent, Indian economy from the repercussions of this American crisis or the Global Recession.

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"Adolescent Mental Health is Endangered Due to Changing Family Patterns Among Different Social Groups in India "
Dr. Vikas S. Kamble, Prof. L. A. Kumaje

Abstract: India has an approximately threepercent adolescent population compare to thewhole population. They are not in large numbers but also they are a future of India. But day by day their mental health problems are arising due to changing child-rearing practices and family patterns. There is a growing consensus in scholars that Indian adolescent group becomes passive and unhealthy. Keeping this fact in mind researcher has designed a study to investigate the effects of avoidance family relationships on themental health of high school students among different social groups. For this study 540 high school students have been selected and deeply interviewed with family relationship inventory. The obtained data analyzed through Two - way ANOVA and Scheffe' s posthocmultiple comparison statistical technique. The result reveals that family avoidance relations strongly affect the mental health problems of adolescents. Some interventions are suggested in this paper which is seen quite beneficial.

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"Social Dominance Orientation Among Different Social Groups Leads to Cast Discrimination Attitude and Communal Violence in India (Breaking a vicious cycle through Ambedkar thoughts)"
Dr. Bharat A. Naik, Dr. Vikas S. Kamble

Abstract: This paper examines the social dominance perspective in the Indian context. Using social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) as guiding theoretical frameworks, we tested three hypotheses within a sample of 106 college students from a region where to severe communal violence had taken place from last five years. In particular, we have hypothesized that social dominance orientation (SDO) and caste discrimination attitude (CDA) would both make high contributions in communal violence. After accepted this hypothesis, we further extended our study to investigate the influence of Ambedkar thoughts to marginalize the social dominance orientation and caste discrimination attitude. A result of this study shows that Ambedkar thoughts intervention is much useful to reduce the SDO, CDA and communal violence from society. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

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"A Study of Life Satisfaction and Optimism in Relation to Psychological Well-Being Among Working and Non Working Women "
Dr. Fareeda Shaheen

Abstract: Purpose of the present investigation was to study the life satisfaction and optimism in relation to psychological well being among working and non working women. The sample comprised of 150 (75 working and 75 non working) women of Aligarh. Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, Diener, Emmons, Larson and Griffin, 1985) was used for measuring Life Satisfaction of women, Life Orientation Scale Revised (sheir and carver; 1994) was used for measuring optimism and Well Being Manifestation Measure Scale (WBMMS, Masse et. al., 1998) was used for measuring Psychological well being of women. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and t-test were used for analyzing the data by SPSS 16 software. Result showed that there was significant positive correlation between life satisfaction and psychological well being. Result also revealed that there was significant positive correlation between optimism and psychological well being. In group differences, it was found that Working Women scored significantly higher on life satisfaction in comparison to Non Working Women. The result also showed that Working Women scored significantly higher on optimism in comparison to Non Working Women. Similarly, the results also revealed that Working Women scored significantly higher on five dimensions of psychological well being out of six dimensions as compared to Non Working Women. Further, it was found that Working Women also scored significantly higher on composite well being as compared to Non Working Women.

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"Education - Role Efficacy As A Predictor of Emotional Intelligence Among College Assistant Professors "
Chanderkant Gorsy , Sandeep Kumar , Madhu Anand

Abstract: Some studies have indicated the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and role-efficacy at schools or language institutes. This study, sought to investigate the association among college assistant professor. 105 assistant professors of different colleges of Haryana participated in the present study. The participants were required to complete the “ Role Efficacy Scale” and the “Emotional Intelligence scale”. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted on the data. The results of data analysis revealed that there was a strong positive relationship between EI and Role efficacy. Furthermore, it was found that among the six components of role efficacy, two subscales of helping relationships and creativity were positive predictors of Emotional intelligence.

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"Acquisition of Basic Geometric Concepts Among Students Who Have Completed Class VIII? "
Chandrani Acharya, Aditi Ghose

Abstract: Geometry is a subject, the cognition of which is paramount in developing visual-spatial skills among children. Cognition of basic ideas of geometry is also required to explicate concepts in other subject areas such as physics, geography, art and craft etc. Faulty conceptualization of these basic ideas and lack of comprehension can lead to insufficient power among children to solve various problems in life and can also lead to frustration and negative attitude towards geometry. This study has attempted to find out how far the basic ideas of geometry are really acquired by middle school children. A comprehensive study to this effect was carried out among the children coming from different environments. The sample group comprised of 486 children who included children who had just completed Class VIII and entered Class IX, both from rural and urban areas in and around Kolkata. Administration of Cattel and Cattel' s Culture Fair Intelligence Scale ensured that the participants' scores were above the first quartile, thus ensuring their educability. A questionnaire for detailed assessment of the basic geometric ideas indicated for middle schools by the most popular boards of education was constructed and standardized and subsequently administered to the sample. The resultant scores were examined and analyzed by statistical techniques including descriptive statistics. The result yielded a significant improvement in acquisition of basic geometric ideas among children as they proceeded from class VIII to class IX, though many of the basic ideas of geometry were lacking among a large number of students.

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"Local Level Administrative Reforms and Management of School Education in India? "
Dr. Rajvir Singh Tyagi

Abstract: The major concerned of education policy reforms has always been to make the delivery of educational programmes more effective. Since schools are the ultimate delivery points in the overall educational management, administration of school education in India has undergone unprecedented changes. The direction of policy reforms in management of elementary education indicated enormous efforts towards the changes that have taken place from centralized command and control of education to decentralized participatory management of the people. Since decentralization of administration encourages people to participate in planning and decision-making process, the present paper argued that enormous efforts have been made in the past to empower people and to decentralize educational administration at district, block and village levels. Keeping in view the emerging issues and challenges of block level educational administration, the study attempts to capture the problems confronted by block level educational administration. It also attempts to identify the gaps between the block level structure of educational administration and the required assignment of functional responsibilities. It examines the question as to how far the present structure of educational administration is appropriate to meet the new challenges of policy reforms and discharge the expected responsibilities. It also investigates as to whether the existing structure of educational administration, at the block level, is able to respond to the issue of effective implementation of RTE and programmes like SSA and MDM, or it needs reform and restructuring. While examining the present structure and functions of block level educational administration, it recommended for creation of a Block Education Officer Cadre in Gujarat.

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"Behavioral and Psychological Profile of Indian Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? "
Dr. M. Archana Simon

Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, first described by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman in 1845, is not a recent discovery. According to the DSM-IV TR, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity - impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. Malhi and Singhi (2000) report that in India, the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is estimated at 10% to 20% in school age children. The current study focusses on exploring the behavioral and psychological profile of children in India who have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Data collected from nearly 200 children from a tertiary care hospital was analyzed. Detailed psychological assessment was also carried out. Results indicate significant differences in the behavioral and psychological profile of children based on the type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, various social aspects and symptom intensity. Exploring similarities with world-wide findings has also been carried out and interesting observations were made. Data was analyzed using t test, F test and ANOVA. These results will positively impact the understanding of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and contribute to the delivery of effective management programs.

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"A Study of Teacher as a Researcher: Constraints and Restraints ? "

Abstract: In the present paper the an attempt is made to explore and delineate the status of awareness amongst school teachers of district Ludhiana about their subject related research development and new knowledge added to their field. It also attempts to explore what new the teachers are adding to their own classroom practices. It tries to look into the various constraints and restraints of the teachers in taking up research activities to improve their classroom practices. A sample of 100 senior secondary school teachers has been taken from the senior secondary schools of district Ludhiana. The data was collected with the help of self structured questionnaire. Results showed the status of awareness of teachers towards educational research in their respective fields and also various constraints and restraints of teachers for taking up research had been discussed in the present paper.

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"A Study of Teacher as a Researcher: Constraints and Restraints ? "
Masaaki Murakami , Yoshikatsu Fujita, Kazuhiko Tsuda

Abstract: It is necessary to carry out planned On-the-Job Training (OJT) effectively in order to develop human resources to address problems such as lack of personnel and time. Approaches to enhancing the effectiveness of planned OJT have been proposed for the personnel training of teachers. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of planned OJT and the factors that influence it by comparing the OJT target person and the person in charge of planned OJT. This study includes a hypothesis model and research questionnaire for OJT target persons (novice faculty members with one year of teaching experience) and persons in charge of planned OJT. Confirmatory factor analysis is applied to the questionnaire data in order to clarify the construct. The hypothesis model is verified by covariance structure analysis. The conclusion consists of two points. Firstly, planned OJT has direct and indirect effects by mediating the subordinate training attitude for OJT target persons and persons in charge of the OJT. Secondly, differences are observed in context.

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"Intercessory Personal Attributes of Traditional Leaders in Handling Conflicts: Influence on Zimbabwe School Education. ? "
Retias Kubuma Makado , Dr S. Srinkanta Swamy, Prof. Leonorah Tendayi Nyaruwata

Abstract: The study was undertaken to establish essential personal intercessory attributes of traditional leaders in Zimbabwe in handling conflicts and their influence on Zimbabwe School Education. The Descriptive Survey Design was employed. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches in data collection. The five point Likert scale type of tool was used. Respondents were asked to rate the personal attributes listed against the scale. The tool had an open ended section where respondents would add any attributes which they thought had been omitted in the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse data. Any personal data which had a mean rating of 4.00-5.00 was considered important. The study revealed that the traditional leaders in Zimbabwe possessed a diverse range of personal attributes in handling conflicts. The personal attributes included those in the cognitive domain, those associated with morality,attributes aligned to deportment, ethical personal qualities, intrinsic virtues and social attributes.With respect to influence on school education, the more the traditional leader became supportive to school programs, especially during conflicts, themore wasthe positive influence he or she had on school education. It was also observed that those traditional leaders who were more educated tended to play a positive role on school education. It was thus, recommended that there was need to train traditional leaders in matters of conflict handling to empower them to handle conflict matters which involved members of their community from diversified backgrounds.

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"Effectiveness of Jigsaw Technique in Enhancing the Reading Comprehension Skills of Secondary Level Students in English? "
Hema Ananthi. M, Sudha. S, Dr. Senthil Nathan. S

Abstract: The Jigsaw Technique Teaching is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks the class into groups and breaks assignment into pieces that the group assembles to complete the Jigsaw puzzle. . In this method, each group members are assigned to become an ‘expert’ on some aspect of a unit of study. After reading about their area of expertise, the experts from different groups meet to discuss their topics and they return to their groups and take turns teaching their topics to their groups’mates. The present study reveals that the greater effectiveness of the Jigsaw Technique Teaching in comparing to the Conventional Method of Teaching English at secondary level students.

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"Time and Space in Indian Science and Philosophy ? "
Dr. N. A. Perumal

Abstract: character of space and time. While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy. The subject focuses on a number of basic issues, including whether or not time and space exist independently of the mind, whether they exist independently of one another, what accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow, whether times other than the present moment exist, and questions about the nature of identity (particularly the nature of identity over time). "The Vedas, the earliest texts on Indian philosophy and Hindu philosophy, dating back to the late 2nd millennium BC, describe ancient Hindu cosmology, in which the universe goes through repeated cycles of creation, destruction, and rebirth, with each cycle lasting 4,320,000 years.Since the beginning of sentience, the fabric of reality has been the subject of intense curiosity, and the twin concepts of space and time have figured prominently in the thinking of individuals of various intellectual persuasions.

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"Adjustment Patterns of Students with Learning Disability in Government Schools of Chandigarh? "
Samriti Sharma, Puneet Sandhu, Dr. Dazy Zarabi

Abstract: Adjustment is a necessary characteristic to live a peaceful and balanced life as a fully-functional individual. Adjustment refers to the harmonious relationship between a person and his living environment. The present study aimed at analyzing the adjustment difficulties, namely emotional, social and educational adjustment of students with learning disabilities in Government schools of Chandigarh. The schools are divided into twenty clusters for administrative purposes. Out of these twenty clusters, one was randomly selected for the present study. The study was conducted on a sample of thirty five students randomly selected from the total number of learning disabled present in the cluster undertaken. The standardized tool used was the Sinha and Singh' s (1995) Adjustment Inventory for School students. The results indicate a deficit in all three areas of adjustment. The students show severe problems in educational adjustment while there are problems in emotional and social adjustment as well. We found 51.4 percent, 42.8 percent and 31.4 percent students at unsatisfactory level of educational, emotional and social adjustment respectively. The results found that social and educational adjustment are correlated since educational activities take place in a social environment. On the contrary emotional and educational adjustment was not found to be correlated in learning disabled students due to the deficit in emotional regulation.

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