Article Title & Authors
 "Optimism in Relation to Well-being, Resilience, and Perceived Stress "
Sandeep Panchal,Swati Mukherjee, Updesh Kumar

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between optimism, well-being, resilience and perceived stress among undergraduates. The sample consists of 181 students (77 male and 104 female) within age range of 18 to 25 years. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983), Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS, Tennant et al., 2007), Optimism/Pessimism Instrument (OPI, Dember, Martin, Hummer, Howe, & Melton, 1989) and Resilience Scale (Wagnild & Young, 1993) were administered to all the respondents. The data were analysed by using descriptive statistics i.e. mean and SD, Pearson product moment correlation and step wise multiple regression. The results revealed optimism to have a significant positive relationship with well-being and resilience. Well-being was found to be significantly positively correlated with resilience. The step wise regression analysis found that resilience is a predictor of well-being.

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"Gender and Group Entitativity: A study of Prejudice and Aggression among University students of Delhi towards Afghan Immigrants"
Akanksha Dochania

Abstract: Afghanistan is gauged and considered as one of the most dangerous countries, listing at number five (Rogers, 2015). Howbeit, India and Afghanistan have since centuries shared a convivial and companionable relationship on political front, thereby fostering and enkindling the coming of Afghan immigrants to India. As a result, capital Delhi has become a magnet for immigrants from Afghanistan, to receive education, procure medical treatment, as asylum seekers, as tourists or for business purpose. Yet, this migration of Afghans is not always welcomed, or given a positive response. This study sought to investigate whether Intergroup threat theory (ITT) of prejudice (Stephan& Stephan, 1996) explains prejudice, effect of gender differences and displaced aggression towards Afghan immigrants. The sample consisted of N=82 university students of Delhi. A questionnaire was issued to the participants in order to establish how they feel (perception) or how they have felt, or how they would feel when interacting with Afghan immigrants. Various scales were used to ascertain this information. Linear regression, descriptive statistics and independent T test were conducted. Findings indicated that in terms of gender; realistic threat, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotypes was exhibited towards Afghan males, in comparison to Afghan females; and entitativity and out group homogeneity effect was also recorded towards Afghan immigrants in general.

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"Influence of Western Knowledge and Culture upon Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and his Philosophy of Education "
Dr. Akter Banu, Md. Shafiqul Alam

Abstract: Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar belonged to Indian enlightened community. His ideas of education and enthusiasm were really fruitful and influential to the Indian people. His contribution, for the salvation of their countrymen is really praiseworthy. He has inspired his countrymen in many ways adopting several strategic measures. He was the pioneer of Bengal Renaissance. His theoretical and practical efforts helped to break the long-standing superstitions and bad practices that were devastating the society. It is expected that the proposed research clearly identify the impact of his efforts on the 19th and early 20th century Indian society. With the help of this study we have understood that how European science and technology influenced him and how Bengal Renaissance occurred, which later on enlightened and developed the then backward society. He was not only the great man of India, but also famous internationally. So a lot of research might be completed about his philosophy of education. The present research has tried to find out the influence of Western knowledge and culture upon Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

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"A study on the Relationship between Field Dependent-Independent (FD-I) Cognitive Style and Brain Dominance among College Students "
Varun M., Shobana Priya. S. , Thamil selvan. P

Abstract: Previous study examined the Gaze pattern of individuals differing in FD-I cognitive style and finding revealed the difference in Blink count, Saccade count and Fixations. Cognitive style also termed as learning style has its implication in education among students and students differing in their hemispheric preferences has their own set of proficiency. The present study investigates the relationship between FD-I cognitive style and hemispherical preference among students pursuing majors that requires distinct capabilities. 45 participants (10 male and 25 female) of 15 from each department (Costume designing and fashion (CDF), Mathematics and English literature) were selected randomly. Participants were administered with Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) and Brain dominance inventory (BDI). Finding indicates the discrepancy in distribution of FD-I cognitive style and brain dominance among students belonging to different majors. Equal distribution founded in regards with cognitive style and brain dominance among CDF students. But in terms of mathematics department, Field Independent S' (FI) outnumbered Field Dependent S' (FD) and those who were FI preferred to be Right hemisphere dominant and similarly in English literature majority falls on the category of FI and their preferred hemispherical dominance is also Right. Overall finding concludes that more than half of the students were belongs to FI cognitive style and for the most part of they were Right hemispheric dominant. Practical implications of the results were discussed.

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" Social Rhythm in Psychiatry"
Raja Upadhyay, Mir Insha Ali , Mohit Kumar

Abstract: This paper looks at Social rhythm from a psychiatric and mental health viewpoint. Like biological rhythm, social rhythm also plays an important role in the functioning of an individual. Social and biological rhythms interact with each other. We, examine how social rhythms have an impact on the mental health of an individual and how disruption in this rhythm could sometimes lead to mental disorders. The occurrence of mental disorder could also lead to disruption in social rhythm, which otherwise was stable before the onset of disorder. Social rhythm is also a good predictor of the course and prognosis of a psychiatric disorder.

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"Mobile Phone Addiction among college going students in Shillong "
Dr. Yodida Bhutia , Miss. Amanda Tariang

Abstract: Mobile phones are known to be hugely popular among the youth. The youth are the most susceptible to developing mobile phone addiction because they are considered to be the heaviest users of information and technology. The present study aimed to find out the mobile phone addiction based on gender and the stream of study. The data was collected from a sample of 159 college students by using the Mobile Phone Addiction Scale (MPAS) developed by A. Velayudhan and S. Srividya. Mean, SD, t-test and Pearson's Product-moment Correlations were the statistical techniques used. It was found that the college going students of Shillong are moderately addicted to mobile phone and gender and stream has no impact on the mobile phone addiction of the college going students of Shillong. Another finding of this study is that there is no significant relationship between availability of pocket money and mobile phone addiction.

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"Right to Work : An Ingenious Labor Legislation "
Bhavna Batra

Abstract: The Constitution of India provides very specifically about the right to work. Despite these declarations, we have not been successful in promoting the right to work. The question which is posed before the citizens is what amounts to the failure of these provisions. The legislations are not few nor are judicial pronouncements. There are many executive officers, too, to ensure compliance of these legislations. In a country like India, it is, thus, imperative to take a close look at the plethora of labor legislations provided by the Parliament. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze all the available legislations in India and to carefully bring to light whether they conform to the required standards. The paper aims to analyze the stand of India and the future prospects for the labor development in India. This paper tries to bring out the best possible labor legislation which is necessary for the development of every citizen. Towards the end, the author tries to bring out a critical analysis of these legislations.

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" Internet Addiction and Mental Health of Higher Secondary Level Students"
Binita Fonia , Prof. Sunita Godiyal , Dr. Madan Mohan Uniyal

Abstract: In present time Internet has become very important in our life which cannot be ignored. The last decade there has been an explosive growth in the use of internet not only in India but also worldwide. Overuse of internet creates a particular addiction which is called Internet Addiction, which can affects one's physical health, mental health, social relationship and academic achievement. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship between internet addiction and mental health. The present study conducted on the sample of 100 higher secondary level students of public schools from Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state of India. Internet addiction scale, a self made tool and Singh & Gupta's mental health battery were used for the data collection. The major findings of the study showed that internet addiction has significantly negative relationship with mental health. The findings of the study also showed that there is a significant difference between the level of internet addiction of boys and girls students.

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"Adolescent Attitude Towards Life: A Study "
Sujitha. R , Dr. Subhashini. R

Abstract: An attitude is an expression of favour or disfavour towards a person, place, thing or event. Attitude as defined 1) Manner, disposition, feeling, position etc. with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind. 2) Position or posture of the body appropriate to or expressive of an action, emotion, etc. a threatening attitude; a relaxed attitude. It is our mental response to people, places, things and events in our life. All people irrespective of status, intelligence or circumstance hold attitudes. Adolescent is the period where many changes will occur and pave way to attitudinal changes. The personality of a person is enormously depending on his/her attitude. In this transient stage, their attitude may be modified due to peer, media, surroundings, family environment etc., Most of the adults searching for perfect paragon to choose their attitude towards life. There are many factors which influence their attitude such as family, marriage, friends, career, socio-economic activities etc., Some attitudes are emerged as direct conclusions. Youngsters are pillars of our nation and their attitudes are considered as important aspect for their future.

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"Resilience Attitude of High School Teachers"
Dr. A. Balamallika Devi , A. Umamaheswari

Abstract: Attitude is the strongest weapon to achieve goals and adjust the environment. Resilience teachers are one, who works well, loves well, adjusts well, and plays well. This paper reveals that resilience attitude of teachers. The sample for this study consists of 49 male 104 female teachers from government, government aided and private schools in Salem district. Resilience attitude scale (RAI) was used for data collection. The study concludes that there was a positive correlation between dimensions the resilience attitude of teachers. The high school teachers from different types of school differ in their resilience attitude.

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"Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept as Predictors of Occupational Aspiration of Adolescents"
Dr. Md. Mahmood Alam

Abstract: In this study, the relationships between self-efficacy, self-concept and occupational aspiration of adolescents were examined. Simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of the participants. The purpose of the study was (i) to investigate the relationship between self constructs viz. Self- efficacy & self-concept and occupational aspiration and (ii) to find out the gender and residential differences in the selected variables. A random sample of 300 students (150 boys and 150 girls) from different government schools of Hyderabad city was selected using Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem, Self- Concept Scale developed by Ahluwalia and Occupational Aspiration Scale developed by Grewal. Analysis of the results were done using correlation and 't' test. The findings revealed that (a) self-efficacy and self-concept have large associations with adolescents' occupational aspiration and (b) there is significant gender and residential differences in the relationships between self-efficacy, self-concept and occupational aspiration of adolescents. No significant relationship is found in self-efficacy and gender of adolescents.

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"Psychological Well-Being Amongst Women Professionals in Different Spheres of Work-Life "
Soumya Sharma , R.K. Sokhi

Abstract: The present research study examines the role of profession in determining psychological well being amongst working women. For the purpose of the present study, a sample of 180 working women aged 25-55 years and employed in three different working sectors viz. Public (60), Private (60) and Teaching (60) was selected. Psychological well-being scale developed by Ryff (1989) was administered in order to attain their overall well-being score. Data was analyzed using ANOVA. Results indicated significant difference across the three professional groups and also between teaching and private sector professionals and public and private sector professionals in their levels of psychological well being with teaching professional reporting the highest level of well-being followed by public and lastly by private sector professionals. Significant difference was also found in sub-dimensions of psychological well-being viz. Autonomy, personal growth and purpose in life.

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"An Experiment with True Education"
Dr. Geeta Shetty

Abstract: Education has taken great strides from being a passive process of information transmission to becoming an active phenomenon of development of knowledge. Educationists take great pride in the progressive pedagogies developed by them to facilitate meaningful learning. What remains to be seen however is, whether there really is a dramatic change in the way society views education. The book 'Divasvapna' presents the stark reality of Indian society of the 1930's and the challenges that existed then. However on analysis, we would say that nothing much has really changed now. The conditions of society, the attitude towards education and learning, the essence of true education are major issues that influence educational practices even now. The book is an inspiration to true educationists who take risks and try innovations to make learning more insightful and purposeful to the learners.

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"Role of Public Universities in Management Education in Uttar Pradesh "
Vivek Srivastava , Rai Alok Kumar

Abstract: There has been rapid growth of demand of management graduates to cater to the need of growing economy of India. Presently, proliferation of management institutions in India has largely been through private capital. Many private institutions have come up offering courses on management education. However, Public universities have been offering management education in Uttar Pradesh from fairly long period of time. They are spread across the length and breadth of state offering different types courses taking care of sectoral needs, in addition to general management course for students and industry benefit. Need for technically competent personnel became urgent for economic development of the state and universities being repository of knowledge, have developed and designed courses recognising needs of society in which they exists. Some are pioneer in starting new courses, while others follow depending upon needs of stakeholders. This study brings forth role and significance of public universities in Uttar Pradesh in offering different management courses has been presented.

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"Analyzing the link between Domestic Violence and Study Skills in multiple contexts "
Dr. Nisanth. P.M.

Abstract: Domestic violence is one of the common experiences in most of the Indian families. Even though domestic violence gained wide academic attention, most of the studies focused primarily on violence against women in domestic sphere. Alarming growth of domestic violence has its own consequence in the intimate relationships especially its effects on children and their learning environment. In addition to that a number of studies try to explore the various aspects of learning. Influences of domestic violence with the study skills of the affected children were gained comparatively lesser priority. This has to be seriously scrutinized to maximize the educational benefits of children of educational institutions. The present study address the important question of how domestic violence influence the learning process.

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"Influence of Spiritual Intelligence on Personality Factors Among College Students "
Madalaimuthu, A. , Kadhiravan, S.

Abstract: Spiritual intelligence is essential for achieving oneness. It provides purpose and direction leading to a sense of identity in the minds of people. An attempt was made to explore the influence of spiritual intelligence on personality among college students. 136 students from Salem city were selected through simple random sampling. The data was collected with spiritual intelligence inventory by King (2008) and their personality was assessed using NEO-Big five personality locator by McCrae and Costa (1992). Results revealed that students do not differ in their spiritual intelligence on the basis of gender. In critical existential thinking and transcendental awareness students differ significantly on the basis of religion. Regression analysis indicated that conscious state expansion of spiritual intelligence had significant influence on personality factors. The implications are discussed in this article.

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"Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Das-Naglieri: Cognitive Assessment System Egyptian Edition: Tests with three Age Groups"
Amal A. M. Sadek , Suzanne M. I. Arafa , Mohamed A. K. Abdel Ghafar

Abstract: TThis study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS-E), and to determine the configural invariance of the four factor theoretical model for the PASS neurocognitive abilities across 3 agedifferentiated groups. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Egyptian version of D-N CAS characteristics among a standardization sample (N=750), normally developed children and late adolescents, divided into 3 different age groups. The current Egyptian sample demonstrated a four factor solution for the PASS neurocognitive abilities among children and adolescents with normal development and different achievement levels. Several fit indices were used including x²= 34.59 P<.001, df=.88, RMSEA=.012. In addition, the values of AGFI, CFI, and GFI are above .90 and .80 respectively, are indicative for a good fit of the first order PASS model. All subtests of the battery demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, with acceptable reliability (r=.98, P<.001). Moreover, the results suggested that PASS model and the CAS measures the same constructs with a good fit among various models of different age groups. The findings confirmed, (Naglieri& Das, 1997) the results for which the latent factor of the D-N CAS-E provided the best conceptualization of the underlying interrelations among subtests similar to the original factor structure of the D-N CAS.

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"A Correlational Study of Religious and Paranormal Beliefs among Indians "
Dr. Malik Roshan Ara

Abstract: Beliefs happen to be the most significant indicators of a person's overall personality and provide us a window on his mental constructs. The study of the paranormal activities and phenomena has been riddled with controversy since its conception and previous researches revealed mixed and contradictory findings. The present study focuses to study correlation between paranormal beliefs and the religious beliefs across different religious groups, among individuals of different age groups and socio-economic status. Significant positive correlation was found between religious beliefs and paranormal beliefs as well as between religious beliefs and the traditional religious beliefs, psi and witchcraft subscales of the paranormal beliefs scale. Muslims scored higher on the traditional religious beliefs subscale in comparison with the Hindus. On the other hand, among the Hindus a higher degree of endorsement of witch-craft was observed. However, so far as the Christians are concerned no significant differences were observed either on global paranormal beliefs or any of the subscales of the paranormal beliefs. Socially marginal groups were found to be more susceptible to paranormal beliefs. They scored higher on psi, witchcraft, superstition, spiritualism, precognition as well as the total- paranormal beliefs scale.

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"Appreciation' about Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation for Children with Hearing Impairment by General and Special Educators - A comparative study"
Shobha N Odunavar , Devaraju N.B

Abstract: Today's Education system which has inclusive approach and aimed to meet the mission of holistic development of each and every child irrespective of ability and disability who comes under the roof of inclusive classroom. Day today overall development of the children in the classroom can be seen effectively with help of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation manual (CCE) for teachers-Classes VI to VIII (2010) has revealed that all commissions and committees related to education have recommended reducing the emphasis on external examination and encouraging the internal assessment. It is also suggests that a school can deal with the differently abled students by forming team consisting of the school counselor, class teacher, peer mentor or buddy. Hence, the need was felt to check the appreciation level of the general as well as special educators about the continuous and comprehensive evaluation for children with hearing impairment. The participants for the study were the teachers who are working in general and special school at secondary level. A descriptive sample survey method with random sample technique was followed to collect data from 60 teachers. On the basis of the CCE manual for teachers-Classes VI to VII (2010) a questionnaire was prepared and used to collect the data from different schools of Mysuru and Bengaluru city. A Mann Whitney U-test was used to analyze the data. Result shows that there is a significant difference between the appreciation level of the general and special educators about continuous and comprehensive evaluation for children with hearing impairment.

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"Subjective Happiness and Adjustment among Mizo Adolscents "
Dr. C. Lalfakzuali

Abstract: The present study is an analysis of the psychological variables of Subjective Happiness and Adjustment, comparing these variables among Male and Female Mizo adolescents. Sample consist of 200 Mizo adolescents (attending schools) ranging in age from 14 to 16 years from the city of Aizawl selected through purposive random sampling. For the purpose of the study, necessary information was gathered through the use of Subjective Happiness Scale (SHC) and Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS). Psychometric adequacy and parametric statistic assumptions were checked for the selected population. Pearson correlation and One-Way ANOVA were applied to find out relationships and significant group differences. The result revealed significant gender differences and significant correlations between the variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the underlying process between the different psychological variables.

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"Prejudice towards Culturally Similar-Dissimilar Immigrants: An Empirical Investigation of Intergroup Threat Theory in Assam "
Rashbha Dochania

Abstract: This study sought to investigate whether the Integrated Threat Theory (ITT) of prejudice (Stephan & Stephan, 1996) explains prejudice towards Bangladeshi and Nepali immigrants in Assam. The theory suggests that the factors, inter-group anxiety, realistic threats, symbolic threats and negative stereotypes, affect prejudice. This research also pursued to measure perceived similarity between Assamese and Bangladeshi immigrants. Multicultural attitude scale was also used as a predictor of prejudice. The sample consisted of 74 undergraduate students studying in various colleges of Guwahati (the most developed city in all of Assam). A questionnaire was issued to the participants in order to establish how they feel (perception) or have felt, interacting with immigrants from Bangladesh and Nepal. Various scales were used to ascertain this information. Simple linear regression and independent sample t-test were conducted. Findings indicated that prejudice was high for Bangladeshi immigrants, for Nepali immigrants however, prejudice was found to be low. Also inter-group anxiety and stereotypes predicted prejudice only for Bangladeshi immigrants, none of the factors of ITT predicted prejudice for Nepali immigrants. Analysis on perceived similarity indicated no similarity between Assamese and Bangladeshi immigrants. On multicultural attitude scale the participants scored high on Separation as a preferred acculturation strategy for Bangladeshi immigrants. In case of Nepali immigrants, participants scored high on integration, separation and Multicultural as a Benefit.

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"Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of 12-item Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale for Hong Kong in-service teachers"
Kim Hung Leung , Christopher H. K. Cheng

Abstract: Teacher efficacy is a powerful psychological construct which has been found to be significantly relating to positive teacher behaviours and students' outcomes. In view of the increasing trend towards the investigation into the cross-cultural validity of teacher efficacy measures, the aim of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of 12-item Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) in Hong Kong educational context. In particular, the factorial validity and the internal consistency reliability were tested by confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha test, respectively. A total of 447 secondary school teachers participated in this study. The results indicated teachers' individual efficacy beliefs were best represented by three factors (efficacies for instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement) instead of either one factor or two factors. These three factors could be further collapsed into one general dimension. Moreover, three subscales showed good internal consistency reliability. Therefore, the Chinese version of 12-item TSES is a valid and reliable measure to teacher efficacy of Hong Kong in-service teachers. Given that there is rich evidence of the construct validity of TSES in the West, this study provides additional support of it in East Asian countries, like Hong Kong.

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"Influence of Metacognition Integrated Learning Package on the Academic Achievement of B.Ed. trainee teachers "
Rishi Kumar , Gurkirat Kaur

Abstract: This study was conducted on 100 B.Ed. trainee teachers to find out the influence of Metacognition Integrated Multimedia Learning Package (MIMLP) on the Academic Achievement. The investigator hypothesized that the achievement in Educational Psychology of B.Ed. trainees taught using Metacognition Integrated Learning Package (MILP) will significantly be higher than that of those who will be taught through the Present Method of Teaching. The results showed that there is a significant mean difference in the achievement between the male and female students of B.Ed.

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"Problems of Visually, Hearing and Speech Impaired Children in The Field of Effective Learning? "
Bodising Narah

Abstract: Generally, each human being has distinct and unique personality. Specially, everyone differ from others on the basis of physically, mentally, socially and emotionally in learning abilities. Impairment refers to the loss or reduced of the power of particular body part or organ. Visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and speech impaired children are some categories of special children. In simple words visual impairment means impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. Unfortunately the children with visual impairment in one way or the other are denied the valuable opportunities of coming into direct contact with the realities of life. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child educational performance but that does not constitute deafness as is called hearing impairment. On the other hand speech impairment means a communication disorder, including stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Children with communication disorders are not receiving an appropriate amount of services from speech language pathologists and audiologists. So, poor intelligence, personality disorders, academic retardation, slow speech development, organic causes, loss of hearing, linguistic difficulties are big challenges for visually, hearing and speech impaired children in the field of effective learning. So, the present analytical Study is specially designed to identify the problems, educational provisions by visually, hearing and speech impaired children in their effective learning. This paper also tries to measures of the problems of the particulars impaired children.

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"School Climate Perception and Innovative Work Behaviour of School Teachers "
Anurupa Kundu, Debdulal Dutta Roy

Abstract: Innovative work behaviour at the individual level depends upon the perception of his/her own working conditions (Daly, 2009). In teaching context, the school climate factors may play a part in teachers' innovative behaviour. Addressing this issue, role of perceived school climate for innovative behaviour of teachers was studied. The sample for the study consisted of 400 school teachers from 28 schools of Kolkata and adjoining areas (West Bengal, India). They were administered the following measures: a) Innovative Work behaviour Scale (Jansen, 2000), b) School Climate Perception Scale (Johnson, Stevens and Zvoch, 2007). Correlation and Regression Analysis were used to examine the dynamics of relationship between school climate perception and innovative work behaviour. Results of regression analysis revealed that instructional innovation, student relation and collaboration were the significant predictors of innovative work behaviour. This study is a noteworthy contribution towards understanding the school climate factors that are important for innovative work behaviour of school teachers.

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"Psycho-Social Development in Relation to other Developmental Domains of Pre-Schoolers-Kilifi Kenya "
Dr. Alice A. Anika

Abstract: IThe study explored the cognitive, emotional, psychomotor, social and language development of some sampled pre-school children in Kilifi County Kenya. The data collection tools included observation check list, interview schedules, Focused group discussions and teacher pupil class activities. The children's teachers and parents were also involved in the study. Visitation to the children's homes and schools was made to find out to what extent parents involvement in children's education enhances child academic achievement. The study concurred with other researchers views that educated parent's plays a great role in the learning of their children. The study also found out that most pre-school units have still been left in the hands of the churches, community members, non-governmental organizations and very little still is in the hands of the government. The training of ECD teachers is still not well regularized and the units are integrated into the government primary schools. However various attempts are being under; early childhood education director at the County government, recruitment of the teaching staffs and development of some selected pre-unit schools to spear head the transition. The study recommended the need to focus on teacher competency and learning resources provision to boost the early childhood literacy environment. There is also need to provide conducive growing up and learning environment to help mould the children into holistic personality in their future lives

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"Effectiveness of Multimedia Instructional Package (MMIP) on Interest in Greening Initiatives and Environmental Accountability among Secondary School Students "
Dr. M. S. Talawar , Vijay Kumar , Dr. S.Thiyagarajan

Abstract: Man is a product of the nature (School of Naturalism) who depends fully on the nature for his entire livelihood in which environment is very closely related to day to day life. Globalization, Urbanization and Industrialization had destroyed the nature and natural resources to a greater extent. Nowadays we don't live in the environment which is stable but much rather becoming unrecognizable and diminishing before our eyes only because of extensive cutting down of trees, pollution, unscientific waste of disposal, population explosion and many interrelated allied problems. Addressing all these issues and crisis, investigator felt that the education alone can be the long term strategy and solution to combat such problems. Among various strategies to educate a man media could be the place a dominant role in sensitizing the mankind to greater extent. Hence, researcher decided to sensitize the secondary student's through Multimedia Instructional Package (MMIP) by developing and validating two tools namely, Greening Initiatives inventory and Environmental Accountability Scale and started with the intervention at Jawahar Navodaya Vidhyalay( Residential Institution) at Pondicherry for about 30 days and drawn the following findings. There is a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test scores of the experimental group and Control group on Greening Initiatives and Environmental Accountability. There is a significant difference between the Post Experimental and the post Control group on Greening Initiatives and Environmental Accountability. Exist significant Gender difference where girls possess higher than that of boys on both Greening Initiatives and Environmental Accountability. Significant difference in locality between rural and urban students. Significant difference between Joint and Nuclear family on Greening Initiatives and Environmental Accountability.

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