Article Title & Authors
 "The effect of Token Economy on Negative Symptoms and Non Vocational Domains on Institutionalized Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Prospective Study "
Nandha Kumara Pujam

Abstract: The token economy is a form of treatment intervention based on principles of operant conditioning developed for the patients with schizophrenia and other chronic mental illnesses. With the help of a rehabilitation program, non-vocational domains such as self esteem and quality of life have shown improvement in patients with schizophrenia. Work was related to higher self-esteem which increases the motivation to engage in self-care behaviors that ultimately reduce negative symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of vocational rehabilitation using token economy principle on negative symptoms and non functional domains of patient with schizophrenia. This was a hospital based longitudinal study conducted at Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi and purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia according to ICD-10 DCR criteria. After taking informed consent from the patient, Socio-demographic and clinical data sheet, Work Behavior Assessment Scale, The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Social Adaptive Functioning Evaluation (SAFE) Scale, The Quality of life- BREF, The Subjective Well Being Inventory, Self Esteem Scale, were administered for all the patients (Pre and Post intervention) After that the patient s were involved in the vocational rehabilitation training using token economy principles, for six months. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Paired‘ t ’ test was used to see the efficacy of intervention. Result showed that vocational rehabilitation significantly improved patient's work behaviour negative symptoms, quality of life, self esteem, subjective well being and socio adaptive functioning.

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"Trauma, Depression and Stress Among Individuals Living in Flood Affected and Unaffected Areas"
Zeenat Fatima , Dr. ShahinaMaqbool

Abstract: Disasters are traumatic events that are dangerous, overwhelming and usually sudden. These are overwhelming because these test the capability of the community and individual to cope up with a massive disruption. Humans have been victims throughout recorded history. One such example is the Flood of September 2014 affected many regions of Kashmir. After about a year of the flood trauma, depression and stress were studied among 200 individuals (100 from the flood affected area and a comparable number from an unaffected area). English version of Brief Trauma Questionnaire (Paula P. Schnurr,et.al), HAM-D and Impact of Events Scale- Revised (IES-R) were used. A significant difference was observed between participants of affected and unaffected areas on all the variables studied.

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"Effect of Personal and Demographic Variables on Occupational Stress Among Teacher Educators "
Dr. Pramod Kumar M.P.M.

Abstract: Stress, in general, and occupational stress, in particular, is a fact of modern day life that seems to have been on the increase. This study examined occupational stress among teacher educators. Of the sample of 120 teacher educators, 22.66% processed low stress, 48.33% medium stress and 25.00% High stress. The study showed that The male and female teacher educators differ in occupational stress (t=2.674 > at 0.05 level). The findings suggest demographic variables like age, experience do have significant relationship with occupational stress (t=2.22 > at 0.05level). Locality doesn't play significant role in (t=0.960 < at 0.05level) occupational stress.

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"Positive Mental Health in the Perspective of Early Childhood Care & Education "
Nagamani Krishnamurthy , Dr. Kalpana Venugopal , Dr. S. K. Tripathi

Abstract: The rich developmental trend in the first years of life draws the attention of early childhood educators to provide stimulating, engaging and developmentally appropriate practices to ensure positive developmental changes in the young children. It has focused the attention of researchers from time immemorial on the amazing aspects of child development and the skills and techniques, knowledge and strategies that could be utilised in the development of positive personalities through ECE participation . Traditionally, the impact of structural characteristics of school environments like teacher credentials, classroom materials, etc have been observed in the literature but the recently emerging findings are indicative of the power of process oriented components of development like teacher-child interactions, classroom emotional climate, etc on predicting child outcomes. The current paper is a case study of a child's academic and socio-emotional success due to the powerful influence of a high quality teacher-child relationship and a positive emotional tone in the classroom environment. The paper is a depiction of the positive impact of a healthy, high quality relationship between the teacher & child on the child's academic and socioemotional success.

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" Academic Achievement and Reasoning Ability of Senior Secondary School Students in Relation to Their Gender, Social Category and Stream of Study "
Kanchana Devi

Abstract: The study examined the academic achievement and reasoning ability of senior secondary school students in relation to gender, social category and stream of study. A sample of 300 students of class 10+1(150 males, 150 females) from different government (10) senior secondary school of Shimla district (Himachal Pradesh, India) affiliated to H.P.S.E.B. Dharamshala were taken. Scores in final examination (10th) was taken as academic achievement of the students. Reasoning Ability Test (RAT) developed by L.N. Dubey was used for data collection. Results of analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant difference and interaction between gender and social category but stream of study differed significantly in relation to academic achievement. Students studying in different streams of study differ significantly in their reasoning ability. The result of studies also indicated that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement and reasoning ability of sr. sec. school students. It is found that the student whose academic achievement is high had high reasoning ability scores.

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"Attitude of Jaintia Hills Secondary School Teachers towards Teaching Profession "
Riyameka Lapasam , Dr. Brinda B. Kharbirymbai

Abstract: Teaching is a noble profession. In order to be a successful teacher one must have a favourable attitude towards the profession. Attitude towards teaching profession is an emotionalized tendency, organized through teaching experiences to react positively towards teaching. This study intends to determine the attitude of Jaintia Hills secondary school teachers towards teaching profession. The study is descriptive in nature. The sample consists of 200 secondary school teachers whereby technique of stratified random sampling technique was employed. The statistical techniques of mean, standard deviation, percentage and ttest were used for analysis. The findings revealed that teachers have a positive attitude towards teaching profession and this attitude differ with respect to gender and locale.

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"Teacher Education - A National Responsibility "
Dr. Geeta S. Shetty

Abstract: CThe validity of any educational program depends upon how far it is in sync with the needs or the context of the times. India being at the brink of a global make over requires its citizens to possess skills and competences that would enable them to contribute to India as well as the world. Shaping up of future citizens takes place in the classrooms. Hence if we need young citizens with futuristic and global outlook, India would need to revisit its teacher formation programs. Teachers would themselves need to possess the skills that they wish to develop in their learners. Hence teacher education curriculum would need to make conscious endeavours to include programs and processes that are progressive and contemporary. It cannot afford to be complacent about its course content; rather it would need to look at its programs vis- à -vis the national and global skill requirements. This article presents the teacher education program with reference to national challenges and shows how the program is a responsibility and not just a duty.

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" Developing Teachers as Counselors - The Empowerment Model"
Dr. Nimrat Singh , Ms. Pramila Shashank Silakari

Abstract: Although India's Education scenario has radically improved over the period of last decade, the learning outcomes of India' s children show little progress. One of the important lessons from two decades of research has repeatedly highlighted that teachers are the fulcrum that determines whether any school initiative tips towards success or failure. This paper explores the impact of training to create a pool of Teacher- Counselors who would facilitate and manage the various transitions and phases in students‘ lives. 16 out of 44 teachers in one of the Rural Grant in Aid High Schools of Banaskantha District were selected for the process. Pre and post assessment was carried out using 16PF and Draw- A -Man Test. Teachers found to be low on self- level attributes namely - emotional wellbeing, self - esteem, social skills and stress tolerance were selected for the first module - ‘ Self ‘ Management and Personal Empowerment'. Designed to bring them on par with the other teachers and hence empower and sharpen their skills in reaching out to students via self - earning. The findings during the sessions, after the training and as described by the students was encouraging and reflected a paradigm shift in the Teachers' own social skills and emotional maturity. The outcome was an enabling class environment with focus on learning and teaching effectiveness. The post training assessment on the 16PF suggested, positive changes on Factors H (social boldness) & Q3 (perfectionism). The above study signifies the emergence of a new model in education enlarging the role of a teacher to build the students holistically through personal empowerment and improved teaching techniques.

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"Impact of Media Violence on the Younger Generation "
Dr. K. Sumita Rao

Abstract: Media violence can be defined as visual portrayals of acts of physical aggression by one human or human-like character against another. This definition has evolved as theories about the effects of media violence have evolved and represents an attempt to describe the kind of violent media presentation that is most likely to teach the viewer to be more violent. This article looks at how initially media involving violence was used to entertain people, but later moved on to also influencing people to carry out such acts of aggression on the real society. More recently, there has been an increase of such media in the form of movies, videogames, television shows, etc. which not only showcase such acts, but also encourage the viewer to behave in such a manner, which is substantiated by case studies. Violence in this context is not restricted to just physical, but can be expanded to mental & psychological aspects as well. The presentation also aims to look at how far do people exercise such acts in society and up to what extent. It finally draws a conclusion by including our viewpoints of whether such media is the primary influence on a subject, or whether it acts as a supplement to the already existing hostile behavior in viewers.

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"Varying Ways Students Learn ‘ Need for Adjusting Instructional Approaches to their Ways"
Dr. Bharti Dimri , Sunil Kumar Pandey

Abstract: There are varying ways of learning, moreover there are various factors that affect it. The interplay between intelligence, learning ways and teaching methods make teaching learning a sophisticated process where educationist need to plan all the aspects of the process meticulously. The present paper touch upon various dimensions of the learning process however it focuses on better understanding of learners capabilities and varying ways they adopt. Furthermore the paper will help teachers to change or modify their instructional approaches to adjust properly for better learning by the students.

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" Drama to Brace The Skills of Stimulus Variation Among Prospective Teachers "
Smitha Jose

Abstract: Drama is an important instructional method, which helps individuals to develop themselves in multi dimensions by empathize with others. It helps the students and teachers to be active in educational and instructional processes. Drama activities provide lots of opportunities for revealing, supporting and developing personality. Skill of stimulus variation among prospective teachers can be developed through drama techniques. The goal of using drama to brace stimulus variation skill is not to teach acting and performance skills but to train the core stimulus variation skills using drama. With the above facts in mind, this paper examines effectiveness of drama techniques to brace skills of stimulus variation among prospective teachers.

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"Relation between Self-esteem, Parenting Style and Timidity among children "
Zahira, M. A. , C. Jayan

Abstract: The study is attempted to explore the relationship between self-esteem, parenting style and timidity among children. A sample of 100 students selected from different schools of Kerala State (Kannur District). Interpersonal Sensitivity Scale, Perceived Parenting Style Scale and Rosenberg‹ s Self Esteem Scales along with socio demographic sheet were used for data collection. The results states that timidity has negative relation with self-esteem. Further, it states that low self-esteem can be a good predictor of timidity among children and authoritative parenting style may tend to develop timidity and low self esteem among children.

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"Impact of Socio Economic Status on The English Reading Comprehension of The First Year Pre-university Students in Mangalore Taluk"
Mareena Seema Sequeira , Dr. Lourdusami

Abstract: The present study aims to find out how the socio economic background and the reading habits of the undergraduate students influence the reading comprehension ability. Random sampling method is used to select 842 I PUC students from the colleges of Mangalore Taluk. Data is collected using Descriptive survey method. It is observed that very few students have good socio economic background and hail from well- educated families. Hence they have first-rate access to reading materials and are able to improve their reading habits due to the motivation by the parents. They possess utmost capacity to comprehend the given text. But majority of the students with poor background are not exposed to reading resources and are not able to comprehend the given passages in English. Therefore there is an urgent need for both the teachers and the parents to create interest among the students in reading and guide them regarding how and what to read.

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"Measurement of Errors and Misconceptions"
Dr. Manmeet (Baweja) Oberoi

Abstract: Despite the best efforts made by teachers, students do not grasp fundamental ideas covered in the class. The research studies indicate that a lot of researches have been done to diagnose errors and misconceptions among students to enhance students' understanding and better performance. All the errors are not misconceptions so it is important to identify the errors patterns on one hand and misconceptions on the other hand so that learning takes place in a correct and holistic manner. Many tools were used by different researchers to identify errors and misconceptions such as discussions, interviews, multiple choice tests, two tier tests and three tier tests etc. All these tools are discussed in this paper along with their benefits and limitations. This paper will help the future researchers and educators to identify the errors and misconceptions and it will also help to enhance the performance of the students in exams.

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"Mental Health in relation to Peer Pressure among Professional students of Kolkata, West Bengal "
Dr. Himani Bhattacharya

Abstract: The most important topic of positive psychology is mental health. Bhatia(1982) considers mental health as the ability to balance feelings, desires, ambitions and ideals in daily living. It is seen that not only peer pressure can influence the sense of belonging, confidence and self-esteem of an individual but also can influence physical, emotional and mental distress. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between mental health and peer pressure among professional students. 100 professional students were randomly selected from different Medical college of Kolkata, Burdwan of West Bengal. Mental health was measured by mental health inventory and peer pressure inventory by Clasen and Brown (1985) was used in this study. Correlation, Independent t-test and Regression analysis were used for analysing the data. The result shows that there is a significant correlation between mental health and peer pressure of professional students. Hence early detection of mental health problems and peer pressures would promote better understanding about students mental health and peer pressures. Finally it is also suggested that further research would highlighted other factors of mental health.

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"Similarities and Dissimilarities between Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Rabindranath Tagore's Philosophy of Educationl "
Dr. Akter Banu , Md. Shafiqul Alam

Abstract: Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Rabindranath Tagore belonged to Indian enlightened community. Their ideas of education and enthusiasm were really fruitful and influential to the Indian people. Their contribution, for the salvation of their countrymen is really praiseworthy. They have inspired their countrymen in many ways adopting several strategic measures. They were the pioneers of Bengal Renaissance. Their theoretical and practical efforts helped to break the long-standing superstitions and bad practices that were devastating the society. It is expected that the proposed research clearly identify the impact of their efforts on the 19th and early 20th century Indian society. With the help of this study we have understood that how European science and technology influenced them and how Bengal Renaissance occurred, which later on enlightened and developed the then backward society. Those selected persons were not only the great men of India, but also famous internationally. So a lot of research might be completed about their philosophy of education. The present research has tried to find out similarities and dissimilarities between Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Rabindranath Tagore's Philosophy of Education.

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"Classroom Management Problems and Coping Strategies of Students' Misbehaviours in Government Secondary Schools of Arsi Zonel "
Birhanu Moges

Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to assess secondary school teachers' perception of management of classroom misbehaviours and coping strategies to prevent, reduce and react towards misbehaviours. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 120 teachers selected randomly from four government secondary schools in the Asella City. Data collected was analyzed and interpreted using percentages, mean and standard deviation. Findings of the study showed that teachers, who are inadequate in CM, tend to have more disciplinary problems in their classrooms. Problematic behaviors of the students in the process of learning-teaching were the uninterested, lazy, noisy, naughty, hyperactive students, giving chorus answers, talking without permission and unpreparedness for class work. Such copying strategies were found ignoring the problematic situation, warning the students about the misbehavior, and use of body language such as mimes, gestures, and establishing eye-contact. The teacher should, being friendly with students, use of appropriate method of teaching and participatory lesson and taking attendance regularly can be helpful in shaping the behaviours of the students. In conclusion, effective CM enhances teachinglearning. It is recommended that teachers should plan activities where students are involved. Teacher should design such classroom and display classroom rules inside classrooms so that the students may see them and follow them.

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