Article Title & Authors
 "Towards a Hierarchy of Inferences: Are Some Inferences more challenging for second language readers? "
Jane Kembo

Abstract: Readers make several inferences in the course constructing texts and meaning in both written and spoken texts. While some inferences seem easier to make, others call for more cognitive processes to arrive at logical conclusions and most of the process is subconscious. The study was explored whether some inferences were more difficult than others to make for SL readers. Could we identify a hierarchy of inferences? Using culturally familiar and unfamiliar texts we tested pronominal, pragmatic, textually explicit and textually implicit inferences in 8 secondary schools in Kenya with learners in their final year. There were 40 questions for each inference category. The results of the test show that in terms of difficulty judgement, only the pronominal inferences seemed to be the easiest. Performance showed that there is a hierarchy inferences. Ability to make one type of inferences varies in readers and judgement of question difficulty is not well developed.

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"Effectiveness of Photoshop Training in Improving Spellings of Dyslexic Students "
Divya Nair

Abstract: Spelling errors is one of the most common characteristics of dyslexics. The present study proposes the use of Photoshop the graphic designing software for catering to this challenge. 56 dyslexic students from a local special school participated in this study. This research made use of the two equivalent post test experimental design. 28 students comprising of the control group were trained through the traditional method. Photoshop training was given to the experimental group [n=28]. Both the groups were also matched in terms of age and IQ. After a training period of four weeks, administration of a written spelling test was given to both the groups. The effectiveness of Photoshop training for spelling improvement was checked statistically through ttest. On the basis of statistical analysis of the data it can be stated that Photoshop training is useful for bringing about improvement in spellings among dyslexic students.

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"Direct Instruction using CBM for Children with Learning Difficulties "
Dr. D. Revathi, Mr. P. Kamaraj

Abstract: Learning difficulties and learning problems are often the first descriptive terms used when a child begins to have trouble in school. In India exclusive efforts are not made to find out the incidence of LD but it has been established that 10-12 per cent of our school children are with learning disabilities. These children require help are in an evaluation system predominantly based on written examination which is a disadvantage to the learning disabled child. Many children with LD develop secondary inattention and behavioural difficulties; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is characterized by developmentally-inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity, is often comorbid with dyslexia (Kadesjo & Gillberg, 2001). Assessment of academic skills using Curriculum Based Measurement/Assessment is one alternative that has recently gained popularity in countries like U.S through Implementation of Response to Intervention for testing the performance of children. Direct instruction is one specific teacher directed explicit instruction have witnessed a growing realization that many of the principles and concepts of direct instruction have wide relevance for special education populations in the last ten years (Bellamy, 1979; and Carnine, 1977). Choosing Direct instruction as strategy by identifying the problem using CBM grade level programme to enhance the learning among children with learning disabilities was the objective of the study. The proposed study was Single subject Experimental design (Pre- Posttest with experiment group). Children having learning difficulties were selected using non probability sampling technique through purposive sampling method. Research identified standardized CBM Measures (grade level passages) and used to identify the level of Reading among children with learning difficulties and intervention was planned according to the needs of children with learning difficulties. The implementation of intervention was given through direct instruction of teaching phonics, word recognition (two & three letter) and short stories. The results showed that the children with learning difficulties are improved in their reading fluency and sustaining attention. If we believe the inclusive education to better service the children with SLD, there is an urgent need for access to the learning opportunities, capacity building of personnel in the field of SLD.

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"An Effectiveness of Activity Based Teaching Learning Strategies on Attitude towards Science among IX Standard Students"
Prakash G. V.,Dr. H. V. Vamadevappa

Abstract: Today the process of education in a formal system is loaded with competition of notes, homework and so on. The allround development of an individual personality has been minimized to a large extent. It is really possible to overcome all these problems and create a sense of healthy competition among the pupils in the present day system.

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" Environmental Management and Reconstruction by Innovative Technologies "
Asha Gupta

Abstract: Environment Management and Reconstruction has been a major challenge. It has led to development of new and innovative techniques for sustainable growth and development. Population pressure and requirement for pure water, food, sustainable energy, and clean air resources have caused numerous perturbations in ecosystem. Deforestation, urbanization (alarming CO2 emission), and pollution of various kinds pose global, national and regional challenges. The presentation advocates and emphasizes for research on clean, renewable and economical sources of energy for domestic, industrial, defense, etc. Rajasthan has climatic conditions in favor of green and clean renewable source from Wind, Solar system and Hydrogen. Future energy demand of world’s population can be overcome by Hydrogen energy. Urgent attention is needed in India for its generation and transmission by innovations and implementation. These techniques which are in their advanced phase should be applied in “Resurgent Rajasthan” with the slogan “Come and Make in Rajasthan

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"Are Low-Achievement Classrooms Cognitively Unbalanced? "
Maybí Morell, Mayra Manzano

Abstract: Low-achievement academic scenarios, in which a large fraction of the students fails to promote to the next academic year, are a persistent reality of many universities, particularly in the initial stages of certain specialties. In this work we explore the epistemological beliefs and metacognitive strategies of a sample of first-year university students of Electric Engineering, where the non-promoting fraction is traditionally high (greater than 30%). In this situation, where academic achievement is generally low, we find significant differences between the promoting and non-promoting groups regarding both beliefs and strategies. Our results show that promoting students believe more in knowledge as a complex entity and use more self-checking strategies than non-promoting students. Within the promoting group, the less they believe in knowledge as handed down by authority, the better Grade Point Average they earned. Furthermore, students promoting with pending subjects use less planification and selfchecking as metacognitive strategies than those who promoted without pending subjects. These outcomes complement with strong correlation effects between the strategies and beliefs about the structure of knowledge and the ability to learn.

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"A study of Scientific Attitude Among Regular D El Ed Student Teachers and Distance Mode in Service Untrained Student Teachers Through NIOS "
C. L. Bhaskara , Dr. G. C. Harish

Abstract: The main aim of present education system is to develop scientific attitude irrespective of practicing subjects systematically. The modern society is being influenced by scientific environment and its wide applications. This become the integral part of our day to day life, the aspects related to this are generally termed as modern thinking, or our outlook. But the awareness and perception of scientific attitude is very most significant product of science. It is an attempt that has been made regarding study towards the scientific attitude of Student teachers, who are undergoing training in Diploma in elementary Education in regular stream and provisional scheme by NIOS. This study reveals on the Diploma in elementary education trainees in regular stream and students who wish to complete teacher training course through NIOS have a significant difference with respect to their scientific attitude.

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"The Effectiveness of Self-Perceived Body Image on Emotional Dysregulation Among Adolescents and Young Adults"
Srishti Chanana, Ananya Sharma

Abstract: Body image is an individual's perception of their own physical self and their thoughts and feelings, which could be positive, negative or both, which stems from one’s perception. Emotional Dysregulation is an emotional counter that is imperfectly modulated, and does not fall within the established acquired range of emotive riposte. The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between self-perceived body image and emotional dysregulation among adolescents and young adults. A purposive sample consisting of 150 participants, 75 males and females each, belonging to the age group of 15-23 years, were taken. The measures used in the present study were Emotional Dysregulation Scale (EDS) by Bradley et al., 2008 and Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) by McKinley. This paper indentures a quantitative analysis by employing Correlation and TTest Method. The relationship between self-perceived body image and emotional dysregulation is comprehended to be bidirectional. There is an integral need to build a positive body image because body image could have effects on an individual's emotional regulation and negative image of our own bodies could lead to emotional dysregulation which hampers our day-today lives.

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"Implementation of Online Survey in Educational Research"
Dr. V. S. Sumi

Abstract: In the recent era of technology explosion, integrating technology into research is not a new term for the researchers. For every stages of research the use of technology is now inevitable. For collecting data, analysis and getting the research output technology is helping. Replacing the age old method of collecting data, internet offers online surveys in the name of web surveys or e surveys. This survey makes the job of a researcher much easier than before. These are computer based tool for collecting, and compilation of data gathered. This paper deals about such kind of online surveys. The paper dealt with what are web surveys, principles for developing web surveys and some ways to improve it when we are used for data collection.

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"Social Marginalization through Globalization: The Missing world of Tribals "
Sayan Dutta , P. S. De

Abstract: Globalization is an undeniably, relentless capitalist process. The process has also invaded India since the introduction of ‘New Economic Policy’ of the nineties, which is a complete reversal of the welfare and socialistic spirit of the Indian Constitution. It encourages reinforcing rapid increase in cross border economic, social, technological exchange under conditions of capitalism. Its intervention can be experienced in multifarious fields of humanity including science, technology, economy, education, development, health, human rights, welfare and social justice. But the big question is for whose benefit, either for the already wealthy and powerful, or the underprivileged, marginalized and powerless? Tribal culture, histories, languages, primitive technologies are not properly preserved and gave adequate importance neither by the colonial government nor by other agencies and rest of the population of India. In the name of development the market forces have created wealth for capitalist’s interests at the cost of livelihood and security of these tribes in the areas. They are unable to stand against the forces of globalization by virtue of his identity and socioeconomic location that determines the question of acceptance or rejection of process. This paper shows the adverse impact of globalization on the tribal way of life from diverse views.

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"Implementing Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) to teach Grammar to First Year English-Majored Students at Dong Nai Technology University "
Hong Ngoc Nguyen

Abstract: Grammar teaching and learning play important roles in English acquisition. However, Vietnamese educational system still favors grammar written tests to evaluate students’ English proficiency. Therefore, students tend to learn more about language forms rather than meaningful language use. This has no doubt resulted in students’ poor communicative ability. Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is a suitable teaching approach, if applied to teach grammar for students, it will not only promote their communicative ability but also instruct them to use grammar correctly and comprehensively. In other words, teachers use TBLT to balance the learning process in which learners both fulfill meaningful communicative tasks and comprehend linguistic forms. In spite of the benefits brought to learners by TBLT, they are still in theory. Therefore, in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice, it is essential to conduct a study which can prove the effectiveness of applying TBLT. The objective of this work can only be achieved by collecting and analyzing data, so choosing research methods has to be done accurately and carefully. Therefore, the current paper aims to present the implementation of Task-based Language Teaching in teaching grammar for English majored freshmen at Dong Nai Technology University. A mixture of both quantitative and qualitative methods applied in the paper would be presented. This section is for concluding the proposal information rather than assuming the results for the study.

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"Comparison of Students Stress Between Government and Private School Going Adolescents "
Nidhi, Prof. Rajesh Kumar

Abstract: Adolescence is the important phase of overall all development of any human being. Stress in the stage of adolescence , especially for the adolescent going to school for their future development is very dangerous. In the present era, students stress is increasing due to many reason, but the study on students stress is very negligible , especially in developing and under developed countries. Therefore, the present study was planned to find out the level of stress in school going adolescent comparing both male and female from government and private schools. A total of (N=120; n1=60 from Private i.e. English medium and n2=60 from Government) school going adolescents were participated in the study. The researchers used Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (1998) was administered to measure the IQ level of the participants and to find out a matching group to test the stress levels for both government and private school. Further, after collection of a matched group of sample from both government and private setting, the researchers used the Students Stress Scale Indian version developed by Akhtar, (2010) (Indian version) to find out and to compare level of stress of participants between government and private school going students followed by both male and female. The results of the present study indicate that, private school going adolescent are more stressed than to the government school going adolescents (p=0.003**) and the stress in males are more common than to their female counterparts (p=0.024*). So from the present study it can be said that stress in school going adolescent is a increasing factor and early management can help to reduce the stress in school going adolescent for their better future development./p>

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"Aspiration Level of Banjara Community Junior College Students "
Mr. Mahendra Govind Khare , Dr. C. P. Labhane

Abstract: In today’s aspiration level of students is playing important role in the educational process. Aspiration level have depends on family environments, parents communication and school environment. There are three valuable factors playing important role of student’s educational success. The aim of the present study is to investigate aspiration level among Junior college students from banjara community. Total sample comprised of 120 (60 boys and 60 girls) adolescent in the age group 16-20 years drawn from pachora taluka. The sample is selected by using random sampling method. For this purpose of aspiration level test constructed by Dr. Mahesh Bhargava and Late Prof. M. R. Shah (1971) was used. The data obtained were analyzed throughout‘t’ test to know the mean difference between the two groups.

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"A Critical Insight into Minimum Level of Learning (MLL) "
Dr. Minoti Srivastava

Abstract: This paper is an attempt to pull your attention towards the basic features of MLL, why policy maker felt to introduce minimum level of learning in education specially in three subjects (Language (mother tongue), mathematics and environmental Studies) and how it will help to create quality and equality in education, basic features of MLL, objectives of creating minimum level in those subjects and strategies of teaching and learning for better results.

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"Prospective Teachers’ Effectiveness in Relation to their Hardiness "
Parul Vats

Abstract: The present research was conducted on prospective teachers to analyze their teacher effectiveness in relation to their Hardiness. For this purpose, a representative sample of 200 prospective teachers (100 from urban and 100 from rural area) of Panipat district has been taken for the investigation of the study. Teacher Effectiveness Scale (TES) developed by Kumar and Mutha’s (1999 Revised) and Hardiness Scale developed by Singh’s (2008) was used to access teacher effectiveness and hardiness of prospective teachers. The result of this study shows that there is no significant difference between the teacher effectiveness of prospective teachers with respect of locale and the research is also shows that there is positive co-relation between teacher effectiveness and hardiness.

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"Investigating vocabulary instruction strategies for non English majored freshmen at Dong Nai Technology University "
Cam Lien

Abstract: Vocabulary, as an integral part of a language, plays a crucial role in the language learning process. Deciding on proper goal to instruct specific terms need to be considerated scholarly. The main target of this study is to identify the strategies for teaching English vocabulary for non English majored first year students at Dong Nai Technology University. A group of 122 students consisting of 52 males and 70 females aged from19 to 21 took part in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied in the paper including questionaire, interview, and observation for collecting reliable, valid, and accurate findings. Generally, the finding indicates students’ attitude toward teacher’s techniques for instructing English vocabulary. In addition, it is advisable for providing teachers appropriate teaching strategies to help learners overcome the obstacles when acquring vocabulary

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"Gender Equality and Women Empowerment to Sustain Social Integrity"
Ms. Ankita Khanna

Abstract: Moral standards, cultural values, honesty are the terms which are deep rooted in our society and when we combine these terms social integrity appears. Integration means to combine all those things which are not similar in nature or having various characteristics as a whole. Thus, social integration is a process in which members of a society having different religion, caste, culture, gender participate so that peaceful social relations can be maintained. The purpose of this article is to discuss in detail about social integrity, various problems that members of a society are facing due to disintegration and what steps should be taken by people to resolve this issue. This article will also discuss about how important is gender equality is in today’s scenario. It is the view that there should not be any kind of discrimination on the basis of gender as both men and women should be treated equally. The various problems regarding gender discrimination and to find out the solutions so that social integrity should be sustained are included in this article. It further highlights the importance of women empowerment which refers that women must also be included in the society, in the decision making process, they should be treated equally and should be given equal important in every field as they also have right to progress in a society. The social, economic, political and legal strength should be increased so that the status of women can be improved and they should be educated enough so that they can know about their rights and can use them judiciously. This article will also discuss about various issues that are related to women empowerment and how these issues can be resolved by each and every member of the society so that we can sustain the social integrity.

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"A Study on Awareness of Ecopedagogy Among Higher Secondary Students "
Dr. Fathima Jaseena M. P. M.

Abstract: In India today, there has been a growing realization of the impact of the increasing population and accelerated development strategies of the quality of the environment. The increasing human demand has been exerting a great pressure on the natural resource base, agricultural land, energy source, vital watersheds, forests, etc. resulting in environmental degradation. The rapid growth of big towns and cities situated on the banks of most of the rivers has led on their over exploitations, leading to rapid degradation of the river water quality. In Bombay, Delhi and Calcutta, about 30-40 percent of the population resides in slums. In this context, now the harsh reality of the environmental crisis- shrinking of forests, increasing desertification, degradation of critical resources, loss of agricultural land, alkalization and water logging acidification of the environment and release of hazardous waste has created an urge for environment awareness among people, planners and policy makers all over the world and specially in India. In such a situation it is relevant to analyze the level of knowledge of younger generation in environmental conservation. This paper try to know the depth of knowledge of new generation in ECOPEDAGOGY.

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"Effectiveness of Self Learning materials on Environmental Awareness among Secondary Teacher Trainees "
Sri G. B. Rajappa , Dr. M. M. Pattanashetty

Abstract: The present study is about the effectiveness of self-learning materials on environmental awareness among the secondary teacher trainees. For the study 100 students were selected by using random sampling technique. The Environmental Awareness Test (EAWT) developed by K. Yeshodhara was used to collect the data. Investigator has developed self-learning material in environmental education for B.Ed. trainees. Experimental design has been adopted for the present study. Experimental and control groups were selected for the study. In the traditional way, environmental education is taught to the control group. While teaching the experimental group the investigator has used self-learning materials. The intercorrelation of the variables has been analysed by correlation. To determine the difference between different groups one way ANOVA was calculated. Hypotheses were examined in accordance with the objectives. The findings of the research can be used to provide environmental education effectively in training institutes. By using self-learning materials it has been found that environmental awareness among teacher trainees can be enhanced. Therefore self-learning materials used in experimental method are more effective than traditional method of learning environmental education.

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"Incorporating Activity-Based Counselling at School-Level Counselling Interventions to Enhance Social Competence in Adolescents "
Kamal Gulati Manwani

Abstract: The primary goal of this research paper is to establish the fact that counseling interventions conducted in the form of activitybased sessions promise a better outcome to enhance social competence of adolescents as compared to lecture based group counseling. An experimental study was conducted over a period of 10 weeks on a randomly selected experimental group of 30 adolescent students of an NGO run school in Delhi NCR. During the study the experimental group went through activity-based counseling sessions developed by the researcher. The experimental group and the control group were subject to Pre and Posttests on Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire by Goodman et al,1998. Statistical techniques were used to compare means and significant difference in two groups. Dependent t-test was used for both the groups. The results established that there is a significant increase in Strengths and decrease in Difficulties in adolescents as a result of activity-based counseling, rejecting the Null hypothesis. The paper also brings forth the suggestions with respect to school-based counseling interventions.

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"Impact of Gender, Type of Management and Locality on Academic Adjustment among High School Students "
B. Venkataramana , Prof. L. Kullai Reddy

Abstract: The study was planned to investigate the impact of gender, type of management and locality on academic adjustment among high school students. Sample of the present study consists of 400 high school students selected by using purposive random sampling technique. Rao’s Academic Adjustment Inventory (1963) was administered to collect the data. Means, SD’s and ANOVA used to find out whether gender, type of management and locality have any significant impact on academic adjustment. Results revealed that gender, type of management and locality have significant impact on academic adjustment.

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"Ethics Sensitivity and Reaction among Student – Teachers of B.Ed. Colleges "
Dr. Anantharamu. B. C.

Abstract: Moral awareness underpins moral reasoning and ethical decision making. This mixed methods study investigates a critical feature of these phenomena among entrepreneurs, namely the influence of social cognitive self-regulation on moral awareness. Results suggest that entrepreneurs with stronger self-regulatory characterstics are more morally aware and relate such awareness to maintaining personal integrity and building inter-personal trust. In contrast, entrepreneurs with weaker self regulatory characterstics appear less morally aware overall, and focus primarily on moral issues relating to failure and loss. As Almond (1999) contends that if morality is judging what is good and right then ethics is the reasoning behind such Judgment.

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"The Role of Language in Literature focusing Feminism and others Globally "
Dr. Chetan Anand

Abstract: The courtly love of language, the praising of dominant individuals, the capturing of language by class individuals, bounded the literature to come and serve for the general people. It was not only in case of English language but for the various surviving languages of the world. Starting with the Anglo-Norman period, the age of Chaucer, Elizabeth, the puritan and Restoration age, Neo-classical/Augustan age, the romantic, Victorian and modern age, English literature has faced the different stages of dawn and dusk of dominancy. The literature has always taken women s literary central theme. Present paper is an attempt to analyze the role of language in literature with an emphasis on feminism with global perspective.

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